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Friday, 16 August 2013

F. W. TAYLOR


Fredrick Winslow Taylor was born in the year 1856 in U.S.A. and is considered as the ‘Father of Scientific Management’ for his contribution in the field of management. He was the one who first organised and presented a scientific approach to management.

He was a great scholar from U.S.A. He started his career in the year 1875, as an apprentice at an age of 19 in a small machinery factory in Philadelphia. In the year 1878, he started working for ‘Midvale Steel works’ as a Mechanical Engineer, and was promoted to the post of ‘Gang boss’ within two years, 4 years later he was again promoted to the post of ‘Chief Engineer’. While working in the company he joined evening classes and got degree of ‘Master of Engineering’.


In the year 1898, he resigned the ‘Midvale Steel works’ and joined ‘Bethlehem Steel Company’. He continued his job up to 1901 and thereafter he resigned. He passed rest of his life in developing the concepts and scientific techniques for management.
Taylor observed that the workers are not contributing to their fullest potential and their capacity and most of their skill is under utilized because of the ‘Trial and Error’ methods, also there was lack of planning, work standard, incentives, division of work, e.t.c. Using his engineering intelligence he conducted research and experiments which resulted in the development of scientific techniques.
Important contributions of Taylor in the field of management are-
Ø      He developed scientific techniques which gave management a scientific and standardised edge.
Ø      He introduced the concept of ‘Functional Organisation System’.
Ø      He suggested ‘Differential Wage System’ for different class of workers.
Ø      He published various articles and books like ‘Differential Price Rate System’(1895), ‘Shop Management’(1903), ‘Principles Of Scientific Management’(1911).
Ø      He developed ‘Principles Of Scientific Management, which are-
1.     Science, not rule of thumb.
2.     Harmony, not discard.
3.     Cooperation, not individualism.
4.     Development of workers to their greatest efficiency and prosperity.
5.     Maximum output in place of restricted output.

Ø      He developed ‘Scientific Techniques’, , which are-
1.     Functional Foremanship.
2.     Standardisation of work.
3.     Simplification of work.
4.     Fatigue Study.
5.     Method Study.
6.     Time Study.
7.     Motion Study.

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